Bollards – Providing Security, Safety, and Design Value

The prominence of bollards has dramatically increased during the past decade due to heightened concerns about security. They are a simple, practical, and cost-effective means of erecting anti-ram perimeter defense without creating a visual sense of a fortified bunker. Bollards are widely used for traffic direction and control, and in purely decorative applications. However, bollards can serve many functions beyond security. They can be used for purely aesthetic purposes, functioning as landscaping elements. Bollards can create visible boundaries of a property, or separate areas within sites. They can control traffic and are often arranged to permit pedestrian access while preventing entry of vehicles.

Removable and retractable bollards can allow different levels of access restriction for a variety of circumstances. They frequently tell us where we can and cannot drive, park, bike, or walk, protect us from crime, shield vehicles and property from accidents, and add aesthetic features to our building exteriors and surrounding areas. Bollards can incorporate other functions such as lighting, security cameras, bicycle parking or even seating. Decorative bollards are made in a variety of patterns to harmonize with a wide range of architectural styles. The prevalence of the most common form of security bollard, the concrete-filled steel pipe, has encouraged the manufacturing of decorative bollards designed to fit as covers over standard steel pipe sizes, adding pleasing form to the required function.

What Is A Bollard?
A bollard is a short vertical post. Early bollards were for mooring large ships at dock, and they are still in use today  A typical marine bollard is produced in cast iron or steel and shaped somewhat like a mushroom; the enlarged top is designed to prevent mooring ropes from slipping off.

Today, the word bollard also describes a variety of structures used on streets, around buildings, and in landscaping. According to legend, the first street bollards were actually cannons – sometimes said to be captured enemy weapons – planted in the ground as boundary posts and town markers. When the supply of former cannons was used up, similarly shaped iron castings were made to fulfill the same functions. Bollards have since evolved into many varieties that are widely employed on roads, especially in urban areas, as well as outside supermarkets, restaurants, hotels, shops, government buildings and stadiums.

The most common type of bollard is fixed. The simplest is an unaesthetic steel post, about 914 to 1219 mm (36 to 48 in.) above-grade. Specially manufactured bollards include not only simple posts, but also a wide variety of decorative designs. Some feature square or rectangular cross-sections, but most are cylindrical, sometimes with a domed, angled, or flat cap. They come in a variety of metallic, painted, and durable powder coat finishes.

Removable bollards are used where the need to limit access or direct traffic changes occasionally. Both retractable and fold-down styles are employed where selective entry is frequently needed, and are designed so the bollard can be easily collapsed to ground level and quickly re-erected. Both retractable units may be manually operated or automated with hydraulic movements. Movable bollards are large, heavy objects – frequently stone or concrete – that rely on their weight rather than structural anchoring to stay in place. They are designed to be moved rarely, and then only with heavy machinery such as a fork-lift.

Bollards generally fall into three types of applications:

Decorative Bollards – decorative bollards for architectural and/or landscaping highlights;
Traffic and Safety Bollards – bollards that provide asset and pedestrian safety, as well as traffic direction; and
Security Bollards and Post Covers – decorative, impact-resistant bollard enhancements
Decorative Bollards

Some bollards are intended purely to be an ornament. As standalone architectural or landscaping features, they can border, divide, or define a space. They can also be accents, sentries, or supporting players to larger, more dramatic architectural gesture.

Decorative bollards are manufactured to harmonize with both traditional and contemporary architectural styles. The latter lean toward visual simplicity – often straight-sided posts with one or more reveals near the top. Styles made to match various historic periods usually have more elaborate shapes and surface details. These include flutes, bands, scrolls and other ornamentation.The post-top is a distinctive feature; traditional bollard design often includes elaborate decorative finials, whereas contemporary versions frequently feature a simple rounded or slanted top to deter passersby from leaving trash or using them for impromptu seating. On the other hand, they are sometimes made flat and broad specifically to encourage seating. Common decorative bollard materials include iron, aluminum, stainless steel, and concrete.

Ornamental designs with elaborate detail are frequently made of iron or aluminum casting. Aluminum bollards are desirable for applications where weight is an issue, such as a removable bollard. Aluminum units tend to be slightly more expensive than iron. For applications where a decorative bollard may be subject to destructive impact, ductile iron is a safer choice than more brittle metals, as force will deform the metal rather than shatter and transforming it into possible hazardous flying projectiles.

Iron and aluminum bollards are frequently manufactured by sand-casting – a traditional foundry technique that is economical and well-suited to objects this size. However, sand-cast objects frequently bear surface irregularities that tend to leave the finished product less appealing to the eye. If high-finish consistency is desired, seek a manufacturer that will machine 100% of the surface after casting to produce units with a uniform surface for maximum visual appeal.

Finish is an important consideration in a decorative bollard, from functional as well as aesthetic standpoints. Bollards are, by their nature, prone to being scratched or nicked by pedestrians and vehicles. Those located near roadways are exposed to a fairly aggressive environment; petrochemical residues and splashes of diluted road de-icing salts may compromise some painted finishes. Factory-applied powder coating – which is available on iron, aluminum, and steel – is an especially durable form of painted finish. The application process builds up a coating with very consistent coverage. During coating, any bare metal tends to attract the powder, eliminating pinholes in coverage. The baking process that completes the finish gives it additional toughness and abuse resistance.

In applications where greater physical abuse is predictable, decorative bollards made of aluminum may be a better choice than iron. If the finish coat is damaged, aluminum oxidizes to a color that is generally more acceptable than the red rust produced by iron. Aluminum and stainless steel are also available in a number of bare metal finishes. Functionality can be added to the otherwise decorative bollard. For example, common option is the chain eye – linking two or more bollards with chain, creating a simple traffic direction system. A large metal loop or arm on the side of the post allows parking and locking of bicycles, an increasingly popular choice as more people seek alternative green transportation. Bollards may also contain lighting units or security devices, such as motion sensors or cameras.

Traffic and Safety Bollards

The most common bollard applications are traffic direction and control, along with safety and security. The first function is achieved by the visual presence of the bollards, and to some extent by impact resistance, although, in these applications visual deterrence is the primary function. Safety and security applications depend on higher levels of impact resistance. The major difference between the two is safety designs are concerned with stopping accidental breach of a defined space, whereas security is about stopping intentional ramming.

Closely spaced lines of bollards can form a traffic filter, separating motor vehicles from pedestrians and bicycles. Placing the posts with 1 m (3 ft) of clearance between them, for example




Key Benefits of Using Corrugated Steel Roofing

There are various types of roofing materials to choose from for your house, and one of the most common among them is the corrugated steel roofing. This is actually the traditional type that was widely used in most houses and buildings in the past. However, when newer technology was developed, more roofing types were introduced in the market, thereby giving home owners better flexibility on their choices nowadays compared to the available options in the past.

Despite the abundance of choices on different types of roofing materials with various styles, steel-type corrugated metal roofing still provides several advantages over the other types of roofing. One of its main advantages is cheaper in cost. Considering that this type of roofing is just plain and simple corrugated metal sheets without much style, this is by far the cheapest material that is at the same time durable enough to withstand even under harsh weather condition.

Obviously, another key benefit of using corrugated steel roofing is durability. Being made of strong metal sheets, it provides complete protection for the house even under extremely hot weather and heavy rains. Hence, building occupants underneath this type of roofing can have peace of mind during bad weathers due to its utmost reliability.

The materials used are steel roofing plates that are both heat-resistant and fireproof. Thus, it is one of the strongest materials in the roofing industry thereby ensuring optimum protection and safety for the building occupants. Many people usually associate steel, iron, and tin materials with rust. However in this case, these roofing sheets are also rustproof to ensure durability and long-lasting use. In fact, its average life span is 50 years. Therefore, this type of metal roofing is replaceable if properly maintained.

Its anti-rust properties are made possible with the presence of zinc in its composition. Galvanized corrugated steel sheets are usually mixed and coated with zinc on its outer layer. Zinc prevents water from coming into contact with the steel material in order to prevent rust. Therefore, its entire composition is actually a mixture of both zinc and metal for maximum durability.

Another distinct advantage is higher flexibility on choices of color for the roofing. Most corrugated roofing sheets are available in their natural silver color. Hence, buyers can directly purchase these materials without bothering on its colors because it can be decided later on during the purchase of paints. On top of that, home owners can easily customize their roofing design and colors. They can opt for various color combination on the roofing and even print some signs and creative designs on it.

Additionally, each entire sheet o    f metal roofing is light in weight. This can significantly help in reducing the total load weight of the roofing. As a result, it requires lesser foundation requirements compared to fancy heavy-weight roofing materials.

Therefore, when choosing for the right type of roofing materials to install on your home, it is best to weigh in your options by looking at some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of materials for roofing. In the case of corrugated steel roofing, the information above can greatly help in deciding on whether this is ideal type at your end.

My name is Fem Mascenon and I thoroughly research and write about steel roofing prices []. Please visit my site at [] to learn how to save on steel roofing prices.

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Expanded Knowledge For a Metal Cutting Blade Job

There is no substitute for a metal cutting blade when you have to cut large metal sheets into more usable sizes. Choosing and applying the right cutting blade, along with proper maintenance results in a first-class job. In this article, we will show how following these easy-to-follow steps, your circular saw blades can cut metal sheet safely, cross cut accurately, make repetitive cuts easily. One may also discover that the expanded knowledge and on-the-job experience regarding the use of ductile iron blades have changed the way metal fabricators view the tool as well as uncovered expanding efficiencies gained through its use.

A saw made specifically for metal cutting to be used

Metal cutting saw blades are employed to boost productivity. These ductile iron blades are simply best for professionals who cut common materials at almost every job site such as angle iron, sheet metal pipe, and steel plate found almost everywhere. Dedicated blades and saws engineered to perform the job are relatively new to the industry, so some fabricators may be unaware of the technology. Using a proper tool and a saw can bring in a loss of time and money. For high-end performance, it is recommended that a saw and a blade made specifically for metal cutting be used.

Choosing and Maintaining the Blade

There are several things to consider when purchasing metal cutting blades, the first of which is the application. Blades are designed for a specific material, such as aluminum, steel, or copper.

Blade Pitch and Design

The size of the work determines ductile blades pitch and design. The information is explicitly detailed on the packaging. In case of uncertainty, one can contact the company tech support.

Use Only Saw-Specific Metal Cutting Blade

It is highly recommended that a saw-specific metal cutting blade is employed for cutting through many structurals and solids. Although a circular saw blade is fairly versatile for several applications, it does have its limitations, and there are a number of applications mentioned on the packaging.

Preventing Premature Machine Wear

Buildup of materials on the cutting edge calls premature machine wear and attrition of the blade edge material. A professionally-built blade will avoid this buildup. One must specifically set the desired revolutions per minute (RPM) for metal cutting. It is important to note that a too high RPM for high cutting will lead to premature machine wear and attrition of the blade edge material. A slower speed will produce a clean and professional smooth cut.

Proper Application is Mandatory

Metal cutting blades should not be mounted on typical wood cutting saws. It is because the amount of torque developed during metal cutting could cause machine breakdown or result in operator injury or tool damage. The blade should be permitted to “spin up”, or get to full speed, before engaging the work. This allows the blade to work effectively and prevent tool damage.

Never use a dull blade

If the blade on a metal saw is too dull, it will place an unwanted strain on both the saw and the operator. A dull blade in a saw can be risky because of the additional force the operator must apply in order to make a cut. Moreover, it can also distort and damage the saw by overworking the motor.

One must buy a blade with the correct attributes for the work and saw. A metal cutting blade makes crosscuts safe, simple and accurate. Therefore, the next time you carry a project that involves cutting sheet metal, head to the hardware store and pick up a quality metal cutting blade that’s right for the task. The savings in time and frustration will more than make up for the cost of the new cutting blade.



Beauty Of Gold Filled Chains

Gold filled chains are becoming the new trend amongst gold jewelry lovers. Since primeval times gold has been considered to be one of the most valuable and precious metal amongst all. It has always been a part of the jewelry wardrobes of the rich and affluent lot of society. With the progress of time gold became so expensive that the buyers had to start thinking twice before burning a big hole in their pockets.

It has been observed that in response to the fluctuation of the world economy the price of gold has been constantly rising making it out of the reach of people. This crisis led to the invention and usage of Para gold material such as gold plated and gold filled. These materials are not only cheaper than pure gold but are highly durable and suitable for daily wear too. This makes gold filled chains extremely popular amongst buyers for accessorizing or making various jewelry projects.

Gold filled chains are usually made by placing a solidified layer of base metal, mostly brass or copper, in between two layers of pure gold metal. The three layers are then heated together to give a perfectly blended formation to the resulting metal. The end product is then placed under a roller till it gets its desired thickness for the targeted jewelry project. This innovative technique gives birth to a highly suitable alternative for real gold metal. Where the base metal provides desired hardness to the material the gold layers give its luster, radiance and shine.

All gold filled chains can be identified by their special marking that says “GF”. However, in order to qualify for that certification the metal needs to meet some principal requirements such as the outer layer of gold metal must weigh minimum of 10 k which makes it approximately 1/20th or 5 percent of the total weight of the end product. Also, the gold must be perfectly fused to the base metal layer through a mechanical process that involves heating under high pressure.

As there is such a strict process followed to create fancy gold filled chain pieces the quality of this material is always of optimum level. There is special regulatory body that monitors its quality standards in order to prevent frauds. Thus, the buyers can always be assured about getting the best quality gold filled chains as claimed by the dealer. Besides this type, there is one more type of golf dilled chains available in the market that are made on a double clad gold filled sheet which possess half the thickness of gold on either sides. Although it is slightly more


Those Elusive Reviews

Like most writers who self publish on Amazon, Goodreads and Smashwords et al., I have difficulty in garnering reviews. It seems that readers just don’t like getting down to writing them. And, as a reader, I must confess I’m no different. Reading a book is, usually, an enjoyable, fulfilling experience, but writing a review of it, a proper one, is demanding, taxing, and can even be hard work; something to avoid, or at least put off.

I’ve just finished Elmore Leonard’s Raylan, a fine book and his last as he passed away last year. It’s a great last hurrah from a superb writer of crime thrillers.  lovepawz  I read it in paperback which, for me, will always be a little better than on screen. And a master craftsman like Leonard on top of his game is pure pleasure. Nevertheless, as much as I loved it, to sit down and craft a fitting, worthy review would take effort. Fortunately, since I bought it in a Montreal bookstore, I do not have to make that effort.

Two years ago, an Irish friend bought my book, The Iran Deception online from Amazon. She liked it and said so in emails. I thanked her and reminded her how good it would be if she wrote a review for me. “I surely will, Tony,” she told me, but the review never came. I gently pushed her on it a couple of times and then gave it up.

Audrey has a family; a husband and three children. She works. She also endured a long period of unemployment. Like the rest of us, she struggles. So, reading for her is done in snatches between chores. Writing a review would be a monumental effort that just will not happen. Bless her.

Another fellow recently bought Down and Out in the Big Mango; my book of short stories about foreigner’s adventures in Thailand. He liked it and wrote me an email full of praise:

“Just a short note to tell you how much I enjoyed your “Down and Out in the Big Mango”. I have been reading it at lunchtimes when I have been teaching at a local college. It’s was a fine collection of some charming and well crafted stories. I must confess my clear favourite was the story of Ray. It was both engaging and poignant with well developed and believable characters you cared for. I felt quite emotional about them at times and didn’t want it to end. Do let me know when you next publish.”

I’ve nudged him twice now in emails to write a review for me, but as yet it has not materialized. Maybe he will surprise me with a glowing review; more likely he won’t, but I shan’t ask him again.

And then there are the reviewers; men and women who read and review books and advertise their skills as such. I was given a long list of such reviewers and emailed each one requesting reviews. Most didn’t reply. Those that did listed conditions (such as the genres they read, or don’t read) that one had to comply with them. I complied as best I could and was placed on waiting lists (“You’re fifteenth on my reading list,” one reviewer emailed me) but I never heard from him again. The problem with “professional” reviewers is they must, inevitably, develop a sense of self importance. Like literary agents, they become gurus; experts in their field and difficult to engage, especially for the beginning writer.

In the beginning, I was advised to engage friends at my “book launch” to read my stuff and write reviews. I duly placed my book on Amazon Select which made it a freebie for five days and then I emailed a host of friends, old workmates and drinking buddies and exhorted them to read my book, my first attempt at a self published novel; the response was poor. Most didn’t give any response at all; not even a reply to my email. One replied that he just couldn’t read a book on a computer screen. “Luddites” like him tell me that, though Amazon’s Kindle and other digital readers have been available and growing in popularity for years, there is still a definite resistance to using them.

Some writers go in for a team effort; a quid pro quo arrangement whereby they review each others books; and boost each others ratings and, consequently, sales. That’s fine as long as the reviews are genuine. But I suspect that if it were overdone, Amazon’s algorithm would frown and bring the curtain down.

On a whim, I turned to my wife. Su is Thai, but unlike most Thais who don’t read, she’s an avid reader, and she loves fiction. She’s university educated, has travelled and lived overseas, and her command of English is good. And as a government officer, her work entails considerable travel, and so she packs a Kindle on her PC. Naturally, on publication, she bought from Amazon a copy of Down and Out in the Big Mango. She read it, and enjoyed it immensely. And then she posted a 5 star review.

Down And Out In The Big Mango: An Excellent Short Story Compilation

Two things attracted me to this book; the gritty, gutsy title and that it was a collection of short stories. As my work entails much travel, I carry a Kindle on my laptop for my reading, and short stories are perfect for travel reading. And as the tales are set in and about Thailand, I was even more intrigued. I was not disappointed.

These nine stories about foreigner’s experiences in the Land of Smiles are superbly crafted, well written and unique. Each story is different, yet each held me from the first sentence. They are dramatic, tense, tender, gritty, and sexy, and packed with a delightful thread of villainy and a deft touch of humor; this author writes to please his readers.

The story I liked most was Ray as it moved me so much emotionally, and I could relate and sympathize with the people in it. Another favorite was the title story, Down and Out in the Big Mango. It’s a book I recommend highly.

Amazon rejected her review; sending her a generalized piece of “boilerplate” stating it could not be published “… in its present form.”

Su modified it and made sure it satisfied all requirements. They still rejected it with the same notice. Maybe Amazon’s algorithm discovered she’s my spouse and were suspicious. They didn’t give a reason; you have to figure it out yourself. You have to read between the lines.

And yet Amazon’s algorithm allowed the following review of Jackie Collins’ “The Love Killers.”

5.0 out of 5 stars fabulous aas(sic) usual, December 19, 2012


XXX – See all my reviews

Amazon Verified Purchase(What’s this?)

This review is from: The Love Killers (Kindle Edition)

Jackie Collins rules:)))))))) always looking forward to reading anything she publishes. Keep them coming please. Love you Jackie xxxxxxx

That “review” in no way satisfies the Amazon review requirements. And yet, it was allowed to pass. I find it puzzling.

Do I write reviews? Yes, I do, but only good ones. If I like a book, I will write a review for it praising its virtues and recommending it. I won’t write a bad review. If I don’t like a book, or I think it’s very poor, I quit reading it and put it aside. Even if I battle on and finish it, I will not write a review for it. And the reason is this. Writing a book is an achievement. It’s hard work. The man or woman who sits down and puts heart and soul into producing a book deserves credit; a firm handshake and a solid pat on the back. “Well done,” I say. “And good luck.” But if it turns out poor wrought or badly edited, I simply stop reading. I do the same with paperbacks. To write one or two star reviews for someone who’s put in such hard, honest work would be cruel; in my view poor reviews do not encourage a writer; they discourage.

Many self-published books are nakedly exploitive of the market. They are packed with gratuitous sex and violence, evil villains and vigilante justice,  ogdispensary   designed to sell and make money by appealing to the lowest common denominator; society’s crud. It is to these I would donate one or two star reviews: if I were to read them. But, of course, I would not dream of reading such stuff. And that’s one of the reasons I like Amazon’s “See inside… ” feature. You get to see at least the beginning, the first few pages, of what you’re buying. And as I like to think I possess that what Ernest Hemingway termed “a built-in, shockproof shit detector” most times I don’t buy.

I’ve come to the conclusion that there has to be a ratio between a writer’s book sales and the reviews he or she receives. A large number of book sales must include a number of readers capable of overcoming the inertia to write a review. But the catch is how to get those initial sales if potential buyers are put off by a lack of reviews? Another element to consider is the volume of works a writer has on offer. A single novel carries little weight. But if a writer has five or six or more novels and short stories in his corpus he stands a much better chance of marketing his stuff; volume of work counts. So writers seeking success need to produce; without, of course, sacrificing quality, mind. There’s much food for thought here.

So there we are, writers working hard, turning out books and needing reviews and seeking new ways of getting their readers to write them; and readers reading books and avoiding writing reviews for them. Writers and readers exist in a state of symbiosis; they need each other. Here’s Henry Miller on the subject: “… though reading may not at first blush seem like an act of creation, in a deep sense it is. Without the enthusiastic reader, who is really the author’s counterpart and very often his most secret rival, a book would die.” And with no sales, without a day job, writers would starve. All writers are also readers, but only a few readers are writers and so they do not fully comprehend the writer’s desperate need for reviews, especially now in the age of Amazon and digital books.

I’m feel sure that everyone “in the business” is aware of the recent scandal of review purchasing and sockpuppetry engaged in by some writers, so I won’t resurrect it here. But I have a sneaking hunch that someone out there is working on new ways to “beat the house.”

On Twitter the other day, I came across a Tweet from a writer offering free books in exchange for reviews.

Zero cost, my ebook at the end of the month OR another top ebook in exchange for a review.

Now, that’s a new angle on review buying. And, as no money changes hands, I have to assume it’s OK. After all, he’s simply asking for reviews, not demanding five star reviews as the unscrupulous John Locke paid for. But it does tend to open a box of tricks. Perhaps I should offer a long weekend in Bangkok in exchange for fifty reviews. What about a week in Sin City (Pattaya) for one hundred reviews. Or better still, a weekend in New York at the Waldorf Astoria, including dinner for two, for 2,000 five star reviews? No. No, I could not get into that. I guess some people have no shame, but I’ll wait awhile, continue to write to the best of my ability and try hard by fair means to develop a following, and keep hoping to get rhonest eviews. It’s just the way it is; reviews are difficult to come by.

Born in Manchester, I left England many years ago to get about and see the world. It was the best move I ever made. After much traveling and adventure in Africa, where I worked in many jobs to serve my passion for travel such as English teacher, bar tender, taxi driver, construction worker in the Transvaal goldmines and the copper mines of Zambia, I moved to Canada, basing myself in Quebec, living in Montreal for many years before moving north into the Laurentian Mountains where I built a log home in the town of Ste. Adele. I now reside in Chiang Mai, Thailand and like it a lot.

In the winter of 2012, I published my first novel, an espionage thriller, on Amazon: “The Iran Deception.” Last November I published “Down And Out In The Big Mango” a collection short fiction about foreigner’s experiences in Thailand. I also published two short stories: “A Bangkok Solution” and “A Partner in Crime.” I am presently working on a second novel: “A Bangkok Interlude.”


Product Marketing for the 21st Century

Marketing by definition is all about reaching out to the consumers through targeted messages and by positioning the product based on the pricing, promotion, distribution elements of the marketing mix. Further, the marketers must be able to glocalize or adapt the global brands to local conditions to leverage upon the market power of the specific regions and countries.  mathey   Further, marketers have obligations towards the consumers and hence must follow ethical norms. Finally, marketers must also be in compliance with the legal and regulatory rules and procedures in vogue in the specific markets that they operate.


Pricing affects the marketing of a product as it determines the consumer segment that is likely to buy the product. For instance, it is common for marketers to segment the market according to the price range that they are selling the product in. There can be lower priced models for the lower end of the segment, medium priced models and finally, the premium or the upper end models for the upper crust of the market. Pricing is important because it determines the discovered value of the product and can be either undervalued or overvalued leading to the product getting sold in abundance or otherwise. Finally, pricing affects the bottom line of the company since it is the direct determinant of revenues. It is for these reasons that pricing is an important variable in the marketing mix (Blois, 2007, 42).


The way in which the product is promoted determines the extent to which the marketing campaign is successful in its scope and reach. For instance, targeted promotion at specific consumer segments means that the message that is intended to be sent because of the promotional campaign would be heard in the correct context or not. Successful advertising also impacts the bottom lines of companies since they determine the sales of the product. Finally, promotion is important because without advertising or word of mouth publicity coupled with point of sale promotions, it is difficult for marketers to get their message across and make sure that consumers absorb the message that is being conveyed. It is for these reasons that promotion is considered an important variable in the marketing mix (Egan & Johnson, 2008, 17).


This variable is usually not given the importance that it ought to be accorded by marketers. The point about distribution being important is that availability and accessibility of the product determine to a great extent how successful it would be in the real world market. For instance, when the latest version of the Apple iPhone 4S debuted recently, the outlets were not stocked with enough products leading to wait times by the consumers making them switch over to substitutes or alternatives. It is for this reason that many marketers design the distribution channels first and then plan their marketing strategies so as to leverage upon the synergies that would accrue from the combination of distribution channels and advertising. Further, many marketers test the products’ applicability and desirability in the market by rolling out test launches in select regions which would ensure that the products and their relevance to the market can be gauged by measuring the response (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, 80).

Marketing in International Markets

Among the pricing, promotion and distribution elements to be considered for international markets, the following specific elements must be taken into consideration: The pricing must be done based on the local purchasing power determined according to the PPP or Purchasing Power Parity. Next, the promotion must be done in such a way that it is a combination of global brand appeal tailored to local conditions or “Glocal” in approach.  roll-up-profis  Finally, the distribution must take into account the varying needs of the global supply chain and its success would depend on how well the company taps into the specifics of the local market. The point here is that when marketing to international markets, attention must be paid to the fact that there is a need to understand the local conditions and hence blind application of global strategies must be avoided. This means that a “Glocal” approach where the global strategies are adapted to local conditions must be followed so that the product is successful in the local markets.

Ethical Considerations

The primary ethical consideration that marketers ought to consider is whether the product being marketed or advertised is according to the normative rules of conduct like not targeting inappropriate advertising at children or using props or visuals that might be offensive to certain groups. The point here is that marketing by definition is all about winning the hearts and minds of consumers and to achieve this, the ethical norms must not be sacrificed. Given the fact that many marketers use messages that use stereotypes, they must be considerate towards minorities, disadvantaged sections and other groups when designing their marketing strategies (Constantinides, 2006, 418).

Effect of Legal and Regulatory Requirements

The legal or regulatory requirements that affect the marketing function include compliance with local labor laws and policies dealing with specific conditions under which the marketers operate in a given market. The fact that each country and region has separate laws for marketers to obey means that they should not only be cognizant of these laws and regulations but also be in compliance with them. It needs to be remembered that punitive action by the regulators impacts the product’s brand value apart from entailing costs that might have to be borne by the companies in marketing the product (Hassan & Submission, 2003, 140).


Blois, K. (2007). `Business Customers’ Behavior – A Challenge for the Relationship Marketing Concept?’ Journal of Business Market Management 1(1):41-58.

Egan & John (2008). `A century of marketing’. The Marketing Review 8(1):3-23.

Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of Marketing (12th Edition) (Principles of Marketing). Prentice Hall.

Hassan, S. S. & Submission, H. C. (2003). `Global marketing eviews’. Journal of Global Marketing 6(3):139-142.

Constantinides, E. (2006). `The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing’. Journal of Marketing Management 22(3):407-438.


New Year: Facts and Resolutions

‘New Year’ means diverse things to various segments of the society. For a layman, it’s the commencement of another year. An office-goer feels it as one more holiday to relax. Rich people get a chance to spend lavishly, and display their status. The elders hope for their dreams to materialize. Manufacturers of calendars, diaries, gifts, etc., seize this occasion to spruce up their profits. Whatever the prospects a New Year holds, its basics never change.

Our Earth takes 365 days to complete one revolution around the Sun. To achieve this task, it works hard and rotates on its axis uninterrupted for 8760 hours,  innotechreviews  and proceeds on its endless journey. Just when the Earth has finished one revolution, we say one year is over. The moment it starts another trip the next year begins. It’s a Happy New Year, thanks to the Mother Planet. Going by the same logic, we can also wish a person ‘Happy New Year’ in addition to the traditional ‘Happy Birth Day’ on completing one year from his last birthday.

New year described above pertains to the Gregorian calendar accepted all over the world. However, several parts of the world and diverse cultures within a territory have their own calendars and New years. For instance, different states of India celebrate it on distinct dates. It starts in Chithirai month (April) for the people of Tamilnadu while it falls on the first day of Chaitra month (March) in Maharashtra. Jews have their New year day in September. To Muslims, the same comes in October. Chinese New year date falls between January, 21 and February, 20.

People celebrate this special occasion in a variety of ways, but exchange of greetings, online and offline, remains to be the simplest and easiest. One interesting greeting received through SMS reads as ‘December, 31,of the calendar says, ‘Turn me.’ Time says, ‘Plan me.’ Future says, ‘Win me.’ Money says, ‘Earn me.’ God says, ‘Remember Me.’

Making a resolution for the forthcoming year is a customary practice, but it aims for a personal benefit. However, the following resolutions will definitely produce contentment and happiness to all.

Never harm others in any manner.

Exchange, even the negativism, in a positive way.

Work hard to benefit self and others.

Yearn for peaceful and happy life.

Eliminate anything that spoils and affects the environment.

Always help others though in a small way, and

Review the progress and take action to improve.

Why don’t we make it a habit to celebrate every day as New Year to have an inspiration and a sense of positivism? Just think of how the whole world will be if each one of us is bubbling with cheers and happiness all through the year. The pomp and spirit of New year celebrations should not end on the first day itself. New Year is the only event celebrated on a grand scale all over the world, though it is not a festival. We can call it as a Secular festival. The United Nations can think of naming First January as Unity Day.


Top 3 Reasons for Using an Organic Shampoo and Conditioner

Organic products seem to be all the rage right now. You can find countless items both online and in stores labeled as natural or organic. Organic shampoo and conditioner have become very popular, as well. You may be asking yourself, “What’s the big deal?”

Natural products have some very distinct advantages and benefits to you as a consumer. Whether you’re looking for products that are environmentally friendly, animal cruelty free, or simply want a product that is healthier for you to use, organic products fit the bill. In this article, you’ll discover what I consider the top three reasons for using an all natural shampoo and conditioner.

1.) Environmentally Friendly

As mentioned before, a product designated as organic is friendlier to our environment. You may wonder why this is so. Organic products are produced from plants that are grown without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers or other harsh chemicals. This helps to keep these toxic elements from further damaging our ecosystem, including our soil and water. Not only are they grown in a safe manner, but the use of organic products is earth friendly as well, because you aren’t washing harmful chemicals down the drain every time you use them.

2.) Cruelty Free

Organic products are not only  Organic Shampoo kinder to our ecosystem, but most companies that produce these items are doing so in a way that is animal friendly, both directly and indirectly. Most products aren’t tested on animals and are, instead, tested on humans. Also, because plants used for these products aren’t produced using chemicals, the result is better soil and water in that area. This leads to healthier conditions not only for our farm animals that are grazing and drinking water from natural sources, but for wild animals as well.

3.) Healthier for Your Body

We already know that the use of harsh chemicals can result in health related issues, particularly when it comes to the use of known carcinogens. Did you know that up to 60% of the beauty products you use every day, including lotions and shampoos, are absorbed into your skin, and therefore, into your bloodstream? That means that any chemicals used in those products are also being absorbed into your system.

Unfortunately, there are many toxic agents that our bodies aren’t capable of metabolizing, and over time, this can lead to a buildup of those chemicals on our vital organs. Organic products are completely natural, so you don’t have to worry about carcinogenic or other harmful elements being absorbed into your body when using them. This may mean better health as you age.

By using an organic shampoo and conditioner, you’re promoting a healthier you which also means that you’ll have a healthier scalp and better hair growth. You’re also helping our environment and supporting products that are not tested on animals. Making the switch is easy enough. You’ll find literally hundreds, if not thousands, of products available both in your local stores and on the internet.


Buying Silver Bars – 5 Tips for the First Time Investor

In a volatile market, investors tend to look to precious metals for their investments. With rising oil and a weak dollar and ever rising inflation the metals market is starting to look good for all kinds of investors.

Silver bullion or coin is likely to be of interest to the big investor looking to buy large quantities of physical metal and also the small investor with a smaller budget.  mathey  It is important to price silver per ounce.

It is difficult to predict where the silver prices will be six months from now but it does seem that it is hovering around $20 per ounce at the moment, (as of Autumn 2013), and it has had a year on year improvement.

Who knows what will happen next?

Interestingly, silver mining is secondary to other mining because:

A) The bulk of silver mines are in obscure and volatile parts of the world so the US is not mining enough.

B) Most countries (like the US and UK) keep a other precious metals reserves but do not keep silver bullion.

Surprisingly though, there is an increase in the industrial use of silver.

So, what should the average investor do?

In my opinion, investing in some silver is a great idea.

If you do decide to invest in silver, it’s worth remembering that silver bullion coins, such as the U.S. Eagle or the Canadian Maple Leaf, will always get you a few dollars above the spot prices. Silver rounds and silver bars usually sell for around the spot prices.

Why I believe that the price of silver is still low?

Because of Manipulation.

The silver price is  roll-up-profis   determined by the volume of purchases. At the moment London is trading at about 130 million oz per day. The physical silver market is about 850 million oz per year in (figures from 2008). Thus in 6 trading days the amount of silver traded is equivalent to 1 year of the supply from World mining. Most of the silver trading done is not for physical silver buyers but for paper trading and even gambling. So at the moment the existing stocks are still able to fulfill the physical silver demand. But I believe, once these stocks dry up, the silver price will go up.

Knowing this, I believe it is sensible to add some silver to your portfolio for investment purposes or as a future insurance policy. Please do your own homework first before you buy. So assuming silver is a good investment, what next?

What type of physical silver should you buy?

1.) In my opinion, those who are new to silver investment should start with common bullion coin first. This is the most liquid form of silver available. It is much easier to sell a Silver Maple leaf compared to a 100 oz silver bar or silver ingot.

In additional to that, if you just want a term of reference, having a few coins is good enough. The Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Silver Eagle looks the exactly same except for the printed year of the coin.

A good collection would be all the years? Not an easy task as some years are harder to find than others, but fun though!

2.) It would be good to get some premium bullion coin with limited yearly mintage such as China Silver Panda, Australia Perth Mint Silver Koala, Silver Kookaburra, Silver Lunar and Silver Kangaroo. These coins have a lower yearly mintage and one side of the coin changes every year.

This is a bit of a naughty ploy by the mint because they can get more sales from the customer and they can up the price. Since the price is so high, it is not wise to buy so many coins for investment but rather more to add to a collection. I will expect people not to want to pay extra for numismatic value, I believe, as money is short, they will be more interested in the silver content of the coin.

3.) Common silver rounds such as A-mark, Pan AM Round and Buffalo Round. I don’t buy common rounds unless from a reputable dealer as they are very easy to fake.

4.) Silver BAR, Perth Mint, Johnson Mathey Bar, PAN-AM, NWT bar. These silver bars come in sizes from 1 oz up to as much as 20oz even a kilobar or 100oz and 1000 oz. Make sure the silver bar has a vendor hall-mark with it such as Perth Mint, Johnson Mathey etc. If the silver bar does not have a popular hall-mark then people may doubt the silver content of the silver bar. The only way to be absolutely sure of the silver content is to melt it down.

5.) Kilobar and 100 oz bar. This large silver bar I would hold for about 10 years and then sell it on. Be careful as the buyer will pay the exact price for the exact weight and some of the bars especially the big ones do not have the exact weight on them.

At the moment, it is still too early to know which silver investment will give the best yield. My opinion is that you should diversify and buy a little bit of each to reduce your risk.

The price of silver and how long should you hold silver?

In early 2013 the demand for both gold and silver coins was record-breaking. This lead to the US Mint running out of silver eagles and they had to suspend sales. I believe that that would have been a good time to sell, when there is a shortage. But generally, unless there is a massive World event then I see silver going up little by little year on year.

Author – Pat Sutton

A silver investor and professional blogger.

Did you know that for the first time in OVER 30 YEARS countries and central banks are BUYING Precious Metals such as Gold and Silver and the demand only continues to rise. Read why here


Nice scale and great customer support

The item description looked good. The product reviews looked good. How could I go wrong? Unfortunately the scale did not work correctly. The weight was off by about 20-30 pounds and not even repeatable. Needless to say, I was disappointed and returned the scale.

After I posted this, I was immediately contacted my the people from Innotech. The were genuinely concerned that the product didn’t function properly. They sent me a new scale within a few days and it looks great and is accurate. Maybe my original experience was a fluke? However, their customer support was first rate! My new scale is work innotechreviews  I revised my rating and felt that my review needed to be reflective of the entire process.
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Karen Phelps
5.0 out of 5 stars The display is very crisp and easy to read
Reviewed in the United States on July 26, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
I was on the fence about what scale to buy. After shuffling back and forth between about 4 pages I finally settled on this one. I went two different doctors offices and got weight measurements there and compared it to the scale on the same day, all three had the same number. The display is very crisp and easy to read. It even stays up for a bit after you step off the scale if you need to bend down to look at the numbers.The batteries are a little different than a lot of battery scales, using button batteries. I suggest adding some to your cart before you check out so that you don’t have to track them down at the store.  seikatsusuidosos  There is a button on the back that will change the scale from lb/kg/st. which is nifty. I don’t think I’ve come across any scales here in the states that do stones. This scale is pretty light and easy to move. I’m glad I bought it. I could stand on my old scale five different times and get five different weights. Not so with this one.
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221 people found this helpful
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Amazon Customer
5.0 out of 5 stars This is just as accurate as my docotor’s scale
Reviewed in the United States on February 27, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
Super sleek modern gorgeous scale! I have tried many of the different types of digital scales, but was disappointed with most of them.   Some have buttons to push, remember your previous weight, check your BMI etc. Lot’s can and does go wrong with those. I wanted a good quality scale that you simply step on, get your weight and go. This one fit the bill, it uses standard c2032 batteries instead of big AAA. It turns itself off after a few seconds to save battery life. It’s as accurate as my doctor’s scale and easy to use.
341 people found this helpful
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Paul B.
5.0 out of 5 stars PERFECTION!!
Reviewed in the United States on September 6, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
I’m psychotic about weighing myself. I have a full-size doctor’s scale in my home and a $75 scale in my forest cabin. The problem is that they don’t agree. Unacceptable. My quest for the perfect scale continued.

Then I stumbled onto alesco  Innotech, a small flat bathroom scale that does weight and nothing else. It got 4.5 stars on Amazon from 1,000+ reviews and only cost $25 bucks. Amazon reviewers raved about its accuracy. I immediately ordered it.

The scale arrived. Its white, thin and sleek, as if designed by Apple. It weighs a ton, which hints at a quality product.

The moment of truth came. I stepped on my doctor’s scale and measured my weight to the microgram. I then stepped on the Innotech. Three pounds off! Damn! Then I read the instructions which said that you have to press the scale to zero it before stepping on it. I zeroed it and stepped on it. The weight was…PERFECT. I stepped off and on two more times and each time the weight was exactly the same. happy-suger  Folks, this is the perfect scale. When I die and get cremated I want this scale with me.
140 people found this helpful
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5.0 out of 5 stars Love It! Love It! Love It!
Reviewed in the United States on March 1, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
This is by far the best value scale I’ve ever owned! I think many brand scales in the market have overpriced, and doesn’t look good as well. This Innotech scale not only has a reasonable price, but also a trendy minimalist style that can easily fit in any place! Besides, the white glass really keeps neat and clean, very easy to maintain. I’m also impressed by its great quality!

– Accurate and consistence. The gym I go to has a professional Omron scale, I found this this scale is very accurate every time compared to Omron one (but you pay only half of the price of Omron scale, and get nicer design, wow!)
– Light weight but very sturdy. I stamp on it by accident many times, it still remains in perfect condition.
– Numbers easy to read.  My dad often complains his scale is hard to read and too many functions that distract him. This scale is simple but readable, I think it is friendly for elder people or pregnant women.

I found it’s most accurate if you activate it (tap on the scale and let it zero out), before you step on. If you don’t do so, its result may be a little off (1 or 2 times out of 10). As long as you activate it before, you will be fine.

Honestly, for the price, design and quality, I am 100% satisfied and plan to buy another one for my parents. Very happy customer!!! I can’t recommend this more.
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Stephanie G
4.0 out of 5 stars Replacement Scale is Great – First one was terrible
Reviewed in the United States on February 16, 2018
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
UPDATE: about six weeks after I wrote this review I received a box in the mail. I hadn’t ordered anything so wasn’t sure what it was and lo and behold the seller of this scale must have seen my review and sent me a new scale. It has been in the box for months because honestly I just didn’t bother with it, the bathroom where it went was under construction and I forgot about it. I pulled it out of the box last week and it is perfect. It doesn’t have any of the problems that the first one has. The displayed weight is accurate and it holds so you can actually see the number. It does not fluctuate when you shift weight and it working great.

So here is the thing, the scale is great for a basic scale with no bells and whistles if you get one that works properly and is calibrated properly.

Not Accurate. I have had the flu for the last week, the last time I got on the scale was 4 days ago. I have not eaten since then, only fluids and some saltines. According to the scale this morning I have gained almost 7 pounds. That makes no sense got on again and lost 10 pounds. Ridiculous and that will drive me insane. I am glad it was cheap, but what is that saying about you get what you pay for. Gonna go and buy myself a nice Tanita and move on
68 people found this helpful
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Amazon Customer
1.0 out of 5 stars Not accurate
Reviewed in the United States on May 22, 2020
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
I had read such positive reviews on this scale. They were much better than all the other scales I researched. However; I just got this scale today and am getting different readings when moving my scale throughout the home. They are off by as much as 5 pounds. I have no idea how much I weigh which defeats the purpose of this purchase. This will most likely be getting returned. What a disappointment.
25 people found this helpful
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5.0 out of 5 stars GREAT SCALE…PRICE IS RIGHT!
Reviewed in the United States on March 22, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
Great scale and the price is right! My scale was very, very old and my eyes are failing, lol! I recently went on a diet and I wanted an easy scale to read. Lost 6 lbs. and am lighter and happier! 🙂 I bought the white one and it is very nice looking too.
80 people found this helpful
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Mary H.
5.0 out of 5 stars Once batteries were done it didn’t work again with new replacements.
Reviewed in the United States on September 19, 2018
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
I purchased this last December. We liked it very much. We had issues in September with low light on and changed the batteries and it still didn’t work effectively. When you step on it, it doesn’t light up. When you push on the batteries on the back with the protective cover off, it lights up. I called the company and they truely have the best customer service I’ve ever had! I had already ordered a new one, because we did like the size and easy to read. The new one was shipped and I was told to throw the one that doesn’t work and would be refunded. AMAZING SERVICE! The new scale uses different batteries. 3 AAA, maybe the battery type was the issue. They were small circle ones.
44 people found this helpful
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5.0 out of 5 stars Great Scale So Far!
Reviewed in the United States on November 2, 2017
Color: WhiteVerified Purchase
The scale is brand new and just arrived, but so far I love it. It’s easy to read the large lit numbers, the scale itself has plenty of space to stand on, it has a very nice modern and clean design which was important to me, the batteries come with the product, the instructions are super clear on how to operate it (insert batteries, place on a flat surface, push one button on the back to change from pounds to a different measurement of weight) and then step on it). So far, I am very pleased with this purchase. It also appears from other reviews that this company has great customer service. They emailed me as soon as my Amazon package was delivered with the phone number to their customer service department.